PCI Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia #technical #encyclopedia, #tech #encyclopedia, #encyclopedia #index, #pc #magazine, #technical

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Definition of: PCI(1) (P ayment C ard I ndustry) See PCI DSS .
(2) (P eripheral C omponent I nterconnect) The most widely used hardware interface for connecting peripheral devices. Used in computers of all sizes, PCI provides a shared data path between the CPU and peripheral controllers, such as the network and graphics cards. However, with so many controller circuits built into the motherboard, the need for extra PCI slots in a PC has diminished considerably.

Designed by Intel, Compaq and Digital, the PCI bus first appeared in PCs in 1993 and co-existed with the ISA bus for many years. Later, motherboards had only PCI slots and one specialized slot for the graphics card; first AGP and then PCI Express. Today, motherboards may have a mix of PCI and PCI Express slots or only PCI Express. See PCI Express and Mini PCI .

PCI Shares Interrupts; ISA Did Not
PCI eliminated conflicts that plagued the previous ISA bus architecture, which required a specific hardware interrupt (IRQ) to be assigned to each ISA card. In contrast, the PCI bus architecture shares IRQs. PCs with both ISA and PCI were made for several years, and if there was only one IRQ left after the rest were assigned to ISA cards, all PCI devices could share it.

PCI Slots
PCI runs at 33 MHz or 66 MHz and supports 32 and 64-bit data paths and bus mastering. There are generally three or four slots on the motherboard, and the quantity is based on 10 electrical loads that deal with inductance and capacitance. The PCI chipset uses three, leaving seven for peripheral controllers. A controller on the motherboard uses one load; a plug-in card uses 1.5 loads. A “PCI bridge” connects PCI buses together for more slots. For data rate comparisons of all PCI technologies, see PCI-SIG. See PCI-X. Concurrent PCI. CompactPCI. PXI. PC data buses. PICMG and Sebring ring .

How PCI Is Connected

This illustration shows how the CPU, memory and peripherals are interconnected in a PC.

All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.

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Christian Chat Net #christianchat.net, #christian #chat, #christian #chat #network, #christian #chat #directory, #christian #chat #index,

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About christianchat.net

Site Title: Christian Chat Net – 24/7 Christian Chat with people all over the world!

The website’s html version is html5. IP Address is and Alexa Rank is 1767234

Site Categories. christian chat, christian chat network, christian chat directory, christian chat index, chat rooms, penpal lists, message boards, irc for christians, interactive chat, church talk,god, jesus, chatrooms, moderated chat, javachat, irc, mirc live talk, online chat community, bible study, christian chat directory, neighborhood, christian message boards, fellowship, interactive, gathering, community, c

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HTML and text sizes are used in the main page of www.christianchat.net like the graph.

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HTML tags used in the main page of www.christianchat.net like the graph

christianchat.net Whois Time Line

www.christianchat.net for the first time taken on 5/31/2002. Last domain update time is 5/23/2015. Also expiry date is 5/31/2016. If you don’t renewal on 05/31/2016 somebody can take it.

Registrar Company is “WILD WEST DOMAINS, LLC” and Whois server is “whois.wildwestdomains.com.
Name Servers. ns1.church-webs.net, ns2.church-webs.net

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Fishing Knots #animated, #knots, #grog, #index, #fishing, #how #to #tie #fishing #knots, #tying #fishing #knots

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Grog s Fishing Knots

Welcome to Fishing Knots


These animated knots are primarily used for fishing, but some are useful in other applications. The selection of knots is based on feedback and advice from many expert fishing contributors to this website. In this section the knots are listed in alphabetical order.

Fishing Knot Characteristics

Fishing knots are designed to be tied in monofilament or braided fishing line and to run through the eyes and rings of a fishing rod or rig. Fishing line is cheap. The emphasis, therefore, is on compactness and reliability with no interest in being able to untie them. Many fishing knots employ multiple, tightly wound turns. The structure of such knots changes under load outer wraps are pulled into the knot and the inner line becomes outer wraps.

Fly Fishing Knots

Fly Fishing Knots

Fly Fishing Knots

The picture on the left shows one typical system for fly fishing. It shows examples of knots that can be used at each junction. The purpose of the tippet is to prolong the life of the leader by replacing it when enough has been lost through breakage, re-tying flies, or damage on snags.


Fishing knots are intended to be pulled extremely tight before use. To ensure the knot tightens smoothly, and to avoid generating heat, the knot should be moistened with water first. The most conveniently available source of water is saliva – which is probably used more than anything else! When available, a better lubricant is vegetable oil.

The ends of most fishing knots can, and should, be trimmed closely against the knot. The best tool for the purpose is a nail clipper.

Breaking Strain

Some words have already been written on the Safety page about knots weakening rope. Claimed breaking strength for some fishing knots is suspiciously high. Supposedly it varies with the number of turns used, and the number of turns is supposed to be adjusted to accord with the line diameter. It is worth remembering, testing shows that monofilament with a knot in its length breaks at about 50% of its ideal strength .

Ideal breaking strength is tested by winding each end around very large diameter drums. However, this is not the typical situation; in most cases fishing knots subject the line to sharp bends and kinks, which greatly reduces the breaking strain.

Therefore, in any knot where the line passes round itself, performance figures in excess of the 50 – 70 % range are best treated with critical skepticism. Testing your own line and your own knot with your own spring balance still provides you with the only data you can truly trust.

The only well-documented method of tying knots in monofilament and maintaining its strength involves threading the monofilament inside a dacron braid. The report claims that with this technique breaking strains of 90% of the ideal were achieved.

The two knots which claim very high breaking strains are the Bimini Twist and the Australian Braid

Make a selection from the images above or go to the Options Page.

Disclaimer: Any activity that involves ropes is potentially hazardous. Lives may be at risk – possibly your own. Considerable attention and effort have been made to ensure that these descriptions are accurate. However, many critical factors cannot be controlled, including: the choice of materials; the age, size, and condition of ropes; and the accuracy with which these descriptions have been followed. No responsibility is accepted for incidents arising from the use of this material.

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Authentication Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia #technical #encyclopedia, #tech #encyclopedia, #encyclopedia #index, #pc #magazine, #technical

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// Encyclopedia

Definition of: authentication(1) Verifying the integrity of a transmitted message. See message integrity. e-mail authentication and MAC .
(2) Verifying the identity of a user logging into a network. Passwords, digital certificates, smart cards and biometrics can be used to prove the identity of the client to the network. Passwords and digital certificates can also be used to identify the network to the client. The latter is important in wireless networks to ensure that the desired network is being accessed. See identity management. identity metasystem. OpenID. human authentication. challenge/response. two-factor authentication. password. digital signature. IP spoofing. biometrics and CAPTCHA .

Four Levels of Proof

There are four levels of proof that people are indeed who they say they are. None of them are entirely foolproof, but in order of least to most secure, they are:

1 – What You Know
Passwords are widely used to identify a user, but only verify that somebody knows the password.

2 – What You Have
Digital certificates in the user’s computer add more security than a password, and smart cards verify that users have a physical token in their possession, but both laptops and smart cards can be stolen.

3 – What You Are
Biometrics such as fingerprints and iris recognition are more difficult to forge, but you have seen such systems fooled in the movies all the time!

4 – What You Do
Dynamic biometrics such as hand writing a signature and voice recognition are the most secure; however, replay attacks can fool the system.

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Personality Disorders & Personality Traits #personality,personality #traits,personality #disorder,disorder,diagnosis, #diagnostic #criteria, #symptoms, #mental #disorder #symptoms, #symptom

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Personality Disorders

By John M. Grohol, Psy.D.

Personality disorders form a class of mental disorders that are characterized by long-lasting, rigid patterns of thought and behavior. Because of the inflexibility and pervasiveness of these patterns, they can cause serious problems and issues in a person’s life if they are diagnosed with a personality disorder. Personality disorders are categorized by clusters of characteristics that share common themes or elements. While most people recognize traits of themselves in many different personality disorders, a person who qualifies for a personality disorder diagnosis will exhibit most such traits of a disorder.

Personality disorders are seen by professionals and researchers as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it. These patterns are inflexible and pervasive across many situations. The onset of the pattern can be traced back at least to the beginning of adulthood. To be diagnosed as a personality disorder, a behavioral pattern must cause significant distress or impairment in personal, social, and/or occupational situations.

These disorders typically aren’t diagnosed until an individual is a young adult, often not until their 20s or even 30s. Most individuals with personality diorders lead pretty normal lives and often only seek psychotherapeutic treatment during times of increased stress or social demands. As previously mentioned, most people can relate to some or all of the personality traits listed The important difference is that it does not affect most people’s daily functioning to the same degree it might someone diagnosed with one of these disorders. Personality disorders tend to be an intergral part of a person, and therefore, are difficult to treat or “cure.”

If you’re interested in personality and want to learn more about normal personality traits and characteristics. please take the Psych Central Personality Test . (It is not for determining whether you would qualify for any of the below diagnoses.)

Symptoms and Treatments of Personality Disorders

Personality Tests Quizzes

Want to learn more about your personality or whether you have a specific personality disorder? Explore your personality by taking one of our free, scientific personality tests below.

Sociopathy Psychopathy

More Personality Disorder Resources