When to File a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit #filing #a #medical #malpractice #lawsuit,bring #a #medical #lawsuit,lawsuit

No Comments


When to File a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit

Filing a medical malpractice suit against a doctor, nurse or hospital for negligence resulting in injury is a difficult endeavor at best. Medical negligence lawsuits are some of the most complex and difficult cases to prosecute, due to the very specific requirements regarding standard of care. as well as the large costs associated with investigating a medical malpractice claim.

If you have been injured due to the negligence of a physician, dentist, nurse, surgeon, anesthesiologist, or other medical professional. then you may have the right to pursue legal action and demand compensation for your injury. Before you do, ask yourself the following questions:

Were You Injured?

In order to bring a medical malpractice lawsuit, there must be damages for which to seek monetary compensation. Let’s suppose a doctor failed to diagnose coronary artery disease when a patient came to the emergency room complaining of chest pains. The patient then goes to another hospital where a doctor correctly recognizes an impending heart attack and treats the man accordingly.

Had the man not gone to the next hospital, he may have died, and the failure to diagnose may indeed be medical negligence. However, “the doctor could have killed me” is not enough for the US court system. In order to bring a malpractice suit, there must be an injury or damages of some sort.

Is Your Injury Serious Enough to Merit Filing a Suit?

It seems logical that anyone injured by the negligence of a doctor should have the right to file a claim for damages. They do, but there is one problem – Medical malpractice lawsuits are expensive. Filing and pursuing a claim for medical malpractice requires a large down payment for the investigation, professional medical consultation and evidence, preparation of the case and more. In order for the claim to be worthwhile, the damages have to be greater than the cost of prosecuting the suit.

An attorney may believe that you have a great case, but if the injury is minor, say something that required only a week of recovery, then the lawsuit would probably cost more to prosecute than the award or settlement would be. A medical malpractice lawyer can not afford to take on these cases because they already take a great financial risk with other, larger lawsuits due to the fact that they are the ones paying for everything. They don’t receive any payment until they win their clients case.

Did Your Doctor Perform with a Reasonable Level of Care?

This is one of the most difficult questions to answer, and usually requires an experienced medical malpractice lawyer. Even an experienced lawyer will have to seek an opinion from a medical doctor, which is why most medical malpractice attorney have a medical professional on staff or nearby. Proving a doctors negligence in a medical malpractice case is critical for a successful settlement or jury award.

Some of the most common forms of medical negligence include the following:

Misdiagnosis or Delayed Diagnosis

If a doctor fails to diagnose an illness, injury or disease, or doesn’t diagnose it soon enough to allow for proper treatment, it may qualify as medical negligence. In order to establish the negligence, another doctor will need to evaluate the circumstances of the case and determine whether the doctor should have diagnosed the medical problem correctly.

Wrong Site Surgery

In a case of wrong site surgery. a doctor may be held liable for operating, or in some severe cases, amputating the wrong body part. There have been instances where someone needs to get a leg amputated, but the medical staff amputates the wrong leg, leaving the patient with both legs gone.

Surgical Errors

During surgery, the doctor is required to operate with such care so as to not cause any injury inside the patients body. Sometimes, a careless doctor may burn or cut an organ or other internal part causing severe injury to the patient. (Click this article to read about Three Real Life Case Studies of Surgicial Mistakes .)

Failure to Follow Up with Treatment

Should a particular treatment be ordered to help cure a patient of an illness, the doctor is required to follow up regularly and monitor progress to ensure that the treatment is working, and doesn’t go on unnecessarily long.

Birth Injuries

It is possible for a doctor to mishandle a baby during child birth. causing potentially permanent damage to the newborn. Alternatively, a doctor may not act accordingly to signs of fetal distress during a difficult birth, which can also lead to injury of the child or mother.

There are many more types of negligence, but the key point to note is that, when determining a doctors negligence, it must be determined that he or she could have prevented the injury had they taken more care, or more specifically, performed to the “accepted medical standard of care”.

Get Legal Advice from a Medical Malpractice Lawyer

If you believe that you may have suffered an injury due to the negligence of a doctor or other medical professional, then you should think about talking to a medical malpractice attorney. Most of these specialized lawyers will offer a free consultation where you can explain the circumstances of your case and get qualified legal advice regarding your options for getting monetary compensation through a civil lawsuit.

Get the compensation you deserve.

User Photo in Exchange, Lync and Active Directory #lync #and #active #directory, #user #photo #in

No Comments


User Photo in Exchange, Lync and Active Directory

This tip explains how to set and export user’s photos in AD, Exchange and Lync/Skype

There are several posts out there about how to upload users photos into Active Directory (AD) so they can be used by Exchange or Lync, but very few on how this works or how to export them if we need to.

In AD we can use images no greater than 96 96 pixels in resolution and 100KB or smaller in size. This looks ok in the Lync and Outlook client, but results in a blurred photo when Lync, for example, attempts to upscale the image for use in a conference.

In Lync 2013 (and Skype for Business Server 2015) photos can be stored in the user’s mailbox (when using Exchange 2013), allowing for photo sizes up to 648×648 pixels. In addition to that, Exchange automatically resizes these photos for use in different products as needed:

64×64 pixels (96 dpi, 24 bit depth, approx. 2KB), the size used for the AD thumbnailPhoto attribute. If we upload a photo to Exchange, Exchange will automatically create a 64×64 pixel version of that photo and update the user’s thumbnailPhoto attribute. However, if we manually update the thumbnailPhoto attribute in AD the photo in the user’s mailbox will not automatically be updated. This photo is only used by Lync 2010 or legacy clients, so we are ok;

240×240 pixels if the original picture is larger than 240, otherwise 96 (96dpi, 24 bit depth, approx. 8KB), for use in Outlook, OWA, Skype for Business Web App, and Skype for Business;

648×648 pixels for use in Skype for Business and Skype for Business Web App.

To use high resolution photos, we have to use the Set-UserPhoto Exchange cmdlet:

Set-UserPhoto Nuno Mota -PictureData ([System.IO.File]::ReadAllBytes( D:\Photos\nuno.jpg )) Confirm:$False

As already mentioned, the Set-UserPhoto cmdlet does two things: it stores a copy of a high resolution image in the user s Exchange mailbox, and stores a copy of the photo as a 64 64 image in the thumbnailPhoto AD attribute.

To check someone s photo, we can use Exchange Web Services and the following URL (updating the user s email and maybe image size):

If we want to export a user s photo from AD, we can PowerShell and the following commands:

$photo = (Get-ADUser nuno -Properties thumbnailphoto).thumbnailphoto

We can now save this photo into a JPEG file and or import it directly to a different user for example (usefull if the user gets a new account):

Set-Content D:\Photos\nuno.jpg -Encoding byte

However, if we are using Exchange 2013, we should use Exchange cmdlets to manage users photos. This way we can export the 648×648 pixels photo from the user s mailbox instead of the small one from AD:

(Get-UserPhoto nuno).PictureData | Set-Content D:\Photos\nuno.jpg -Encoding byte

If you want to use high resolution photos in Lync as well, you might want to ensure you update your Lync Client policy with a MaxPhotoSizeKB of at least 100 instead of just 30.

See Also

The Author Nuno Mota

Nuno is an Exchange MVP working as a Senior Microsoft Messaging Consultant for a UK IT Services Provider in London. He specializes in Exchange, Lync, Active Directory and PowerShell.

Latest Contributions

Never miss an article by subscribing to our newsletter!

Categories: News Tags: Tags: , , , , , , ,

California DUI Lawyers Association #california, #ca, #dui, #dwi, #drunk #driving, #directory, #defense, #attorney, #attorneys, #lawyer,

No Comments


Oldest Drunk Driving Defense Bar Association in the United States


Our attorney members throughout California, including Orange. San Diego. Los Angeles counties, all the way to the Bay Area and Northern California, including Fresno, Oakland, San Jose. Sacramento, San Francisco and Santa Rosa consist of mothers, fathers, daughters, sons and some grandparents. We put the safety of our communities and our friends and families above anything. Our members believe in the safety of our streets and have consistently advocated this position on television and on websites solely dedicated to the prevention of Driving Under the Influence.

Our experience has taught us that we are rarely approached for help until after one has been arrested for Driving Under the Influence. We encourage anyone who needs help or guidance in this area or a guest speaker for any event to please contact our organization and we would be happy to help you free of charge to help get our message of prevention and the goal of community safety to as many people as we can. We have seen the consequences first hand and would love to share our experience.

The heavy burden, costs and inconvenience that occur with every Driving Under the Influence arrest are extreme, but the cases can be successfully defended based on the facts of your case.Driving Under the Influence is simply not worth the consequences and most importantly, the dangers presented to the public at large. Many times the message we wish to present falls on deaf ears, but the message certainly carries more weight when presented by Driving Under the Influence attorneys. If you are arrested for Driving Under the Influence and require the help of one of our members, please share your experience candidly with them so that you’ll receive competent representation in the Department of Motor Vehicles as well as in the DUI court. Fight your case – California’s criminal justice system can stand no less than perfection when you are potentially “not guilty”.

If you have any questions, feel free to contact any of our California DUI attorney members who will be happy to assist you in any matter. Finally, please be safe. We would rather have a safe community above anything else and are willing to assist in any way we can.

California Drunk or Impaired DUI Law for the Public

Attention: If you have just been arrested for a drunk driving or impaired operating charge in the State of California, beware of the DUI laws in this state – the penalties can be severe for even a first offense and reduced charges are possible if you have a decent case and a knowledgeable defense lawyer. Nothing in this site is legal advice and nothing can replace a competent lawyer representing you. Don’t go to court or the DMV without a DUI lawyer representing you – get the public defender if you cannot afford a DUI attorney. Remain silent and only discuss your case with a licensed lawyer – we are not a DUI lawyer referral service but you may review our members listings – use Find a CA DUI Attorney

Will you be on a jury? Jury Duty – An Honored Service – Read this before serving

An IID for all convicted – Ignition Interlock for First Offenders and Multiple Offenders

California Code of Regulations Title 17 – Forensic Alcohol Analysis and Breath Alcohol Analysis

Watch 10 Rules for Dealing with Police

Find a California DUI Class

California Drug and Alcohol Recovery

Find out about, or rate, your judge, prosecutor, & defense attorney

Drugs and Driving

Filing an Auto Accident Complaint for Damages and Injuries #auto #accident #forms,hit #and #run,truck #accidents,parking

No Comments


Filing an Auto Accident Complaint

Every day, people are hurt and killed in auto accidents in the United States. Accidents happen for all different reasons. However, whether you are hurt in a hit and run accident, a parking lot accident or one of the many kinds of truck accidents, you typically need to complete certain auto accident forms and to file an auto accident complaint in order to recover damages.

How to File an Auto Accident Complaint

After you have completed your accident investigation and all of your auto accident forms, it will be time to file an auto accident complaint to seek financial recovery for the property damage and personal injuries that you suffered because of another driver’s negligence.

State law requires that auto accident complaints be filed within a specific amount of time regardless of the type of accident. Therefore, the same time limitations apply to a hit and run accident, a parking lot accident and truck accidents.

Auto accident complaints are generally filed in state court and allege that another person’s negligence caused your injury. The complaint must explain the facts of the case and why the facts will prove that the other person’s negligence caused your injuries. In order to file a negligence claim, your complaint must allege that:

  • The defendant owed you a duty of care
  • The defendant breached the duty of care by failing to act like a reasonable person would act;
  • The defendant’s breach of the duty of care caused your injuries and /or property damage that would not have happened but for the defendant’s breach of the duty of care; and
  • You are entitled to damages as a result of the above elements being satisfied.

Your complaint must also meet the technical requirements of state law, be signed and be properly served to the defendant.

Help from an Auto Accident Lawyer

The legal requirements of an auto accident complaint make it difficult to file the complaint without the help of an auto accident lawyer. An auto accident lawyer will make sure that your complaint contains all of the legally required information, is filed in the right jurisdiction, is filed within the required timelines, and is drafted to your legal advantage.

Resource Directory #resource #directory, #depression #resources, #adhd #resources, #bipolar #resources, #ocd #resources, #parenting #resources, #mental

No Comments


Mental Health Psychology Resources Online

Welcome to the oldest annotated directory of online psychology and mental health resources. This directory began in 1992 and was originally published in the Usenet newsgroups; it was transferred to its current Web-based format in 1995. Every resource contained herein has been personally reviewed by one of our Psych Central associate editors.

Abuse(126)new Including sexual, child, emotional, etc. Addiction and Substance Abuse(397)new Includes topics of alcoholism, drug abuse, and complusive behaviors (such as gambling, sex addiction, over-eating, internet addiction, etc.) Alzheimer Disease and Dementia(21) Alzheimer’s disease and dementia information and support resources. Anxiety and Panic(133)new Including agoraphobia, phobias, anxiety, and panic disorder. Articles and Essays(144) Articles and essays from Dr. Grohol and others published on Psych Central. Attention Deficit Disorder(58) Including ADD/ADHD (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity) in children and adults. Bipolar(97) Including manic depression. Books(93) Master list of all books recommended. Depression(204)new Resources related to depression and dysthymia. Disability(269)new Advocacy groups, support groups, FAQs, articles on accommodation issues, military veteran resources, and more for individuals with disabilities (mobility impairments, sensory impairments, developmental disorders, learning disabilities, psychiatric disabilities, and systemic conditions). Disorders(91) A cross-referenced category that lists mental health diagnoses and symptoms. Dissociation(25) Dissociative disorders, including multiple personality disorder. Eating Disorders(108)new Including anorexia, bulimia, and overeating. Grief and Loss(60) Including resources to help people cope with death and dying. Health and Wellness(189) General health and support resources Licensing Information(127) Need to contact your local licensing board about a therapist or counselor you’re seeing?

Medical Disease Support(276) Support and information resources for many medical problems. Medications(87) Reference information for prescription drugs and medications, including indications, dose, drug interactions and side effects. Mental Health(400)new General, broad-based mental health resources, including resources on symptoms, psychotherapy, advocacy, and etherapy. Obsessive-Compulsive(33) Including fixations. Other(65) For miscellaneous links which don’t fit nicely anywhere else. Parents and Children(236)new Including adoption, parenting and child resources. Personality(58) Including personality assessment and personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. Post-traumatic Stress(54) Including PTSD and reactions to stressful events. Psychology(571) Professional psychology resources of interest mainly to practitioners and researchers. Psychotherapy(505)new Resources related to psychotherapy Relationships(104)new Including marriage and couples resources. Schizophrenia and Psychosis(45) Including resources relating to schizophrenia, such as schizoaffective disorder. Self Esteem and Shyness(39) Self-image and shyness resources. Sexual and Gender(102) Including women’s and men’s issues. Suicide and Crisis(50)new Including offline and online resources.

BEST Online Travel and Tourism Schools #online #degree #programs, #online #schools #directory

No Comments


BEST Online Travel and Tourism Schools / Colleges / Degree Programs

For a List of the BEST Schools That Fit Your Needs, Select Your Zip Now!

Online degrees for travel and tourism are available at many levels including certificates, diplomas, and associates, bachelors, or master’s degrees, from a variety of online schools. An accredited degree can be obtained from the comfort and leisure of your own home without jeopardizing current employment, or other personal situations. Students who decide to pursue an education and career in the field of hospitality can study to become a travel and tourism manager, travel agent, travel coordinator, travel clerk, and much more. PETAP.org can provide you with a number of online schools and colleges that can help you turn your dream of a degree into a reality.


There are a variety of travel and tourism careers including cruise sales managers, corporate travel counselors, reservationists, property managers. travel agents, and more. Accredited online training can provide you with the skills necessary to obtain a degree in any one of the areas that interests you.

With a degree in travel and tourism you may find employment arranging transportation, hotel stays, tours, and other forms of entertainment depending on the type of degree you obtain. Many hospitality employees are also responsible for keeping clients up to date on information regarding weather conditions, local ordinances, attractions, customs regulations as well as passport and visa regulations, and currency exchange rates.

Online curriculum for a travel and tourism degree may include the study of sales techniques, cruise line information, reservation systems, travel destinations, accounting, and bookkeeping. Some online schools and colleges may also offer training in culture and environment, economics, tourism marketing. foreign language, and tourism and hospitality management, depending on your educational needs.


Fully accredited online schools and colleges can help you to acquire better employment in the future, which is why it is necessary to ensure accreditation before applying to a program. The Distance Education and Training Council (DETC) is one of many agencies that offers full accreditation to online schools and colleges that provide travel and tourism education.


Discover the many online travel and tourism schools and colleges available to you by exploring PETAP.org. Contact several programs of interest today and request more information about the online education of your choice.

For a List of the BEST Schools That Fit Your Needs, Select Your Zip Now!

Regarding Accreditation: In order to confirm a quality education, valid accreditation is necessary. Accrediting organizations approved by The Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) and The U.S. Department of Education (USDE) are able to fully accredit the schools, colleges, universities and online schools listed on EducationPETAP.org. Unless otherwise noted, to the best of our knowledge all schools, colleges, universities and online schools listed on EducationPETAP.org carry full accreditation by one or more accrediting agencies. We do however always recommend that you verify the accreditation status prior to enrollment in a program.

Disclaimer: All content noted above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to any specific school(s) that may possibly be advertised on EducationPETAP.org.

Copyright 2009 and beyond. All rights reserved by EducationPETAP.org. Reprinting or otherwise extracting details, graphics, or material from this page is expressly prohibited, and violators will be prosecuted extensively by law.

Categories: News Tags: Tags: , , , ,

Massage Schools in Virginia, VA Massage Therapy Colleges #massage #therapy #beauty #schools #in #va, #massage

No Comments


Massage Schools in Virginia

From Richmond to Virginia Beach to Williamsburg, the Commonwealth of Virginia is a hot and growing market for massage therapists. Massage services are in demand in spas, salons, hotels, hospitals, physical therapy offices and wellness centers, as well as in the private sector. You have your choice of massage schools in Virginia that can train you in everything from Swedish and deep-tissue massage to sports and prenatal massage. Virginia massage schools can prepare you for certification by the National Certification Board for Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork.

Get Massage Therapy Training in VA

Massage therapy schools in Virginia teach more than the technical components of massage. They also teach students to dedicate themselves to the practice of massage as a service to others. Common techniques taught include medical massage, Swedish massage, deep tissue massage, trigger point therapy, Shiatsu, myofascial release and pregnancy massage. Massage therapists use their hands to manipulate tissue and create more space in the body and better functioning body systems. Massage therapists usually treat the individual needs of the client, and work on problem areas or towards general relaxation. Learning massage therapy in Virginia could be a vital career move if you feel called to these ideas.

Earn Your Virginia Massage License

Training programs in massage therapy require a high school diploma or GED to enter. Some college studies in science, psychology and business are helpful but not required for admission. The State of Virginia requires potential massage therapists complete at least 500 hours massage therapy education at an accredited school. Students then must pass either the NCETMB or MBLEx examination to show comprehension of the massage therapy school curriculum. The profession is licensed through the Board of Nursing in Virginia. Licensure in Virginia allows the practitioner to enter the field of massage therapy at the entry level in the state.

Begin Working as an VA Massage Therapist

Most massage therapists find employment in spas, salons, resorts, hospitals, health practices, gyms, sports facilities and clubs, and in private or group massage practices. They may also work for themselves as sole practitioners providing massage in their own home or office or in their clients’ homes. Some massage therapists visit businesses and provide chair massages in the workplace. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports the annual mean salary for Virginia massage therapists is $46,970. Salaries in the state range from $22,460 to $68,260 before tips. Many massage therapists specialize in one or more massage modalities, allowing them to increase their earning potential. Massage therapists are even taking their equipment to malls and businesses, and offering on-site massages to workers and busy shoppers. This flexibility of hours and locations for practice are some of the main attractions for the career of massage therapy. If you think this might be a career that interests you, check into a massage therapy school in Virginia.

Look through the list below to find massage schools in Virginia.

Map of Cosmetology Schools in VA

Categories: News Tags: Tags: , , , , , , , ,

HOWTO – Configure Round Robin and Load Balancing #dhcp,dns, #bind, #dns #security, #dnssec, #tsig, #tkey,

No Comments


HOWTO – Configure Load Balancing

This HOWTO assumes you want the DNS server to respond with different IP addresses (or change the order of a given set of addresses) in order to provide a simple load balancing solution. You have a choice of solutions depending on what you want to do:


Balancing Mail

The normal method of handling mail fail-over is using the ‘preference’ value which is described in this note. However, using the MX record you can balance mail in two ways.

  1. Define multiple MX records with the same priority, for example:

The name server will deliver the MX records in the order defined by the rrset-order and the receiving SMTP software will select one based on its algorithm. In some cases the SMTP selection algorithm may work against the definition of the rrset-order statement. Current versions of sendmail (8.13.x), Exim (4.44) and Postfix (2.1 or 2.2) all have definitive references to indicate they randomly select equal preference servers (Postfix allows control of the behaviour with the smtp_randomize_addresses parameter) and consequentially the SMTP server may use an address which the rrset-order has carefully tried to change! qmail, courier-mta and Microsoft (Exchange and IIS SMTP) documentation does not appear to have definitive references to indicate how they handle the multiple MX RR case.

  • An alternate approach is to define multiple A records with the same mail server name:

    In this case the load-balancing effect is under the control of BIND and the rrset-order record. In order to avoid problems if the receiving mail system does reverse look-up as a spam check then the PTR records for,, above must all define (resolve to) mail.example.com.

    In all the above cases each mail server must be capable of handling and synchronising the load for all the mail boxes served by the domain, either using some appropriate back-end, access to a common file system (NAS, NFS etc.) or by defining all but one server to be a mail relay or forwarder.

    Balancing Other Services

    Assuming you want to load share your ftp, web or VPN services then you simply define multiple A records with the same name and different IPs as in the example below.

    Note: While above example shows IPv4 addresses using A RRs, the principle applies equally to IPv6 addresses using AAAA RRs.

    The DNS will deliver all the IP addresses defined, the first IP address in the returned list will be in a (default) cyclic a.k.a. round robin order (controlled by the rrset-order ‘named.conf’ statement). The ftp and www servers must all be exact (synchronized) replicas of each other in this scenario. In summary, multiple RRs are an extremely effective load balancing tool and can even provide powerful failover capabilities depending on the application.

    There are, however, a couple of wrinkles, as always, in this perfect world. The first is the use of the sortlist ‘named.conf’ statement which can cause the IP address order to be changed when delivered from a resolver (sortlist is a complicated statement and not commonly implemented). The second relates to IP address selection when using the standard POSIX library function getaddrinfo implemented in LIBC (C standard function library). RFC 6724 (and its predecesor RFC 3484 ) nominally defines address selection for IPv6 but is also applicable to IPv4 (especially, but not exclusively, in dual stack operations) depending on the LIBC implementation being used. Certainly glibc (GNU libc used on most *nix systems) implements the RFC features for address selection (many thanks to Dennis Leeuw for the heads-up on this issue). From GLIBC version 2.5 to at least GLIBC 2.16 (GLIBC uses a bizarrely exotic numbering system) the RFC 3484 definition was implemented meaning that certain IPv4 addresses (depending on the precise IPv4 set) can be excluded from ever appearing first in the address list thus defeating any load balancing attempts by authoritative servers. This behavior can be controlled by use of a /etc/gai.conf file (see man gai.conf for details). RFC 6724 restored the supremacy of the DNS sourced list (all other things being equal) though at this time (February 2014) it is not known if the RFC 6724 behavior has been implemented in any GLIBC release (the earliest would have been 2.17). In summary, depending on the implementation of RFC 3484/6724 the client can have a definitive (and final) effect on the ordering of IP (IPv4/IPv6) addresses irrespective of any attempts by the authoritative domain owner to change this.

    Note: Applications using the (nominally obsolete, but still supported) gethostbyname standard function which provides, essentially, the same functionality are not affected by the getaddrinfo issues described above.

    Balancing Services

    The SRV record allows an application to discover the server name (and optional port number) on which a service, such as, SIP or LDAP or whatever is provided. As such, it provides another approach to load balancing. SRV provides both priority and weight fields allowing a fine level of granular configuration as well as providing some level of fail-over. The SRV record description contains an example illustrating this kind of flexibility. However, the end application must be SRV-aware for this approach to work. Application support for SRV is patchy at best – varying from very high in SIP (VoIP) to non-existent (browsers).

    Balancing Services with Split-Horizon

    An alternative approach to load balancing may be provisioned using BIND’s view clause to create a Split-Horizon configuration. Split-Horizon can use the users source-ip address to respond with a service IP address thus balancing for geographic or even service provider-specific traffic sources.

    Controlling the order of RRs

    You can control the order of RR that BIND supplies in response to queries by use of a rrset-order statement which works for any set of equal records (an RRset ). The default behaviour is now defined to be cyclic. Note: Since BIND 9.6 the fixed value of rrset-order is invoked with a build option – standard Linux/BSD packages do not build with this option and thus will not support fixed rrset-order configurations.

    However, just to make life truly interesting the sortlist statement can entirely destroy the effect of any rrset manipulation.

    Effectiveness of DNS Load Balancing

    The previous sections have addressed some of the techniques that may be used to balance load using DNS functionality. However, the real question is, how effective can the DNS be in providing this balancing?

    The effects of caching will distort the effectiveness of any IP address allocation algorithm unless a 0 TTL is used – which has the effect of significantly increasing the load on the DNS and is not always implemented consistently. Even if a 0 TTL worked consistently (and it may not be supported consistently by all resolvers) the cure may be worse than the disease. Good news we have great load balancing on our web servers. Bad news we need 17 more DNS servers! Note: You may also want to read this note on TTL values. Then again, you may not want to read it.

    Intuitively, and without running any experiments to verify, we would suggest that given a normal TTL (12 hours or more) and ANY IP allocation algorithm other than a single static/fixed list, loads should be reasonably balanced (measured by request arrivals at all the destination IPs in the RRset) given the following assumptions:

    Traffic is balanced over a number of DNS caches, that is, traffic originates from a number of ISPs or customer DNS cache locations. Specifically, there are no pathalogical patterns where 90% (or some large’ish number) of the load originates from a particular cache/service.

    Traffic volume is reasonably high (perhaps > 10,000 accesses per week) – since pathalogical patterns are more likely in small traffic volumes.

    What DNS load balancing cannot do is to account for service loading, for instance, certain transactions may generate very high CPU or resource loads. For this type of control only a local load balancer – one which measures service response times – will be effective.

    Finally on this topic, if you still consider that a DNS solution will do the trick if only you could perfectly control the order of IP address generation, then you could use BIND 9’s SDB API to achieve the result (or one of the available libraries ).

    Problems, comments, suggestions, corrections (including broken links) or something to add? Please take the time from a busy life to ‘mail us’ (at top of screen), the webmaster (below) or info-support at zytrax. You will have a warm inner glow for the rest of the day.

    If you are happy it’s OK – but your browser is giving a less than optimal experience on our site. You could, at no charge, upgrade to a W3C STANDARDS COMPLIANT browser such as Firefox

  • User s Account Name Changed in Active Directory #active #directory #user #picture

    No Comments


    User’s Account Name Changed in Active Directory. How to Sync it in SharePoint?

    We had a user account in Active Directory: EU\su s anapi. Later there was a change in User name. It become: EU\su z anapi. But even after several user profile imports, the old user name: EU\susanapi was still showing up in SharePoint, and SharePoint treated the new user account as a separate account.

    What is the Fix?
    Unfortunately, Sharepoint doesn’t understand this change automatically. We need to make it understand by giving instruction via STSADM command.

    When user’s Account Name (or Login Name: Domain\User) renamed in Active Directory, you have to use stsadm -o migrateuser command to associate the new AD account with an existing SharePoint profile.

    stsadm -o migrateuser -oldlogin EU\susanapi -newlogin EU\suzanapi -ignoresidhistory

    PowerShell cmdlet to migrate user: Move-SPUser Identity “DOMAIN\OldUserName” NewAlias “Domain\NewUserName”

    I had to do the same thing When users left the company, their accounts are deleted in AD (But their profiles are not deleted in SharePoint). After some time they came back! New AD-Account created and I just used the “MigrateUser” command to associate the new account with their existing user profile.

    By this, All their profile Data, Security Settings, Tasks assigned and My Site are associated back with the users. This procedure also applies when we migrate users from other domains. (or during domain Renames!) KB: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/953131

    BTW, If its for any other properties like Display Name, First Name, Last Name, etc, Profile imports should sync it back with SharePoint. If you need the change urgently either you can trigger the Profile import on-demand or you can update the user property by SPUser.Property=something or with PowerShell Set-SPUser.

    You might also like:

    SharePoint Usage Reports
    Usage reports, collaboration and audit for SharePoint.

    Document SharePoint Farm
    Automatically generate SharePoint documentation.

    Categories: News Tags: Tags: , , ,

    Theme Directory – Free WordPress Themes #free #online #multiplayer #games

    No Comments

    #free themes



    1. Grid Layout
    2. One Column
    3. Two Columns
    4. Three Columns
    5. Four Columns
    6. Left Sidebar
    7. Right Sidebar


    1. Accessibility Ready
    2. BuddyPress
    3. Custom Background
    4. Custom Colors
    5. Custom Header
    6. Custom Logo
    7. Custom Menu
    8. Editor Style
    9. Featured Image Header
    10. Featured Images
    11. Flexible Header
    12. Footer Widgets
    13. Front Page Posting
    14. Full Width Template
    15. Microformats
    16. Post Formats
    17. RTL Language Support
    18. Sticky Post
    19. Theme Options
    20. Threaded Comments
    21. Translation Ready


    1. Blog
    2. E-Commerce
    3. Education
    4. Entertainment
    5. Food Drink
    6. Holiday
    7. News
    8. Photography
    9. Portfolio

    Twenty Sixteen


    By Shaped Pixels


    Enterprise Lite

    By Macho Themes

    Riba Lite



    By Theme Junkie

    Delivery Lite





    By WebMan Design | Oliver Juhas


    By Pete Schuster


    MH TechMagazine

    No themes found. Try a different search.

    Code is Poetry.

    Categories: News Tags: Tags: , , , , ,